Cardiovascular Disease Studies and Research
In the CVD puzzle…
Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown in the epidemiological and clinical trials to reduce the incidence of CVD. Large-scale epidemiological studies suggest that individuals at risk for CHD benefit from the consumption of plant- and marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids, although the ideal intakes presently are unclear. Evidence from prospective secondary prevention studies suggests that EPA+DHA supplementation ranging from 0.5 to 1.8g/d (either as fatty fish or supplements) significantly reduces subsequent cardiac and all-cause mortality.
The GISSI-Prevenzione includes 11,324 patients, recruited by 172 cardiological departments representing up to 2/3 of the structures of the Country National Health Care System. The results of the GISSI trial confirm early epidemiological reports on the protective effect of a diet rich in fish (n-3 PUFA are considered the main active component), and the findings of other much smaller controlled trials, not sufficiently powered to measure the impact of the treatment on cardiovascular and overall mortality. In the GISSI-Prevenzione, an impressive decrease (more than 40%) has been specifically shown on fatal events classified as sudden deaths, which accounts for up to 30% of all CV deaths.
Based on the estimated produced by GISSI-Prevenzione, up to 20 lives are expected to be saved per 1,000 pts treated with n-3 PUFA. This 5.7 lives saved per year is a result which compares well with the benefit obtained with statins in the LIPID trial (5 lives / 1,000 pts/yr).
To read more about the GISSI Study please click here: http://www.gissi.org/EngIntro/T_Intro_ENG.php
Animi-3 Clinical Trial
- Animi-3® Clinical Trial for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction and Cognition Begins with Leading Medical Researcher from Tufts University 2005
- Supplement for Reduction of Cardiovascular Disease on Trial 2005
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
- Tufts Researchers Find That Omega-3’s Can Reduce Risk Of Cardiovascular Disease 2006
- Increased Unrecognized Coronary Heart Disease and Sudden Deaths in Rheumatoid Arthritis (510) 2005
- Increased Consumption of Omega-3 Fatty Acids May Lower the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, Dementia and Inflammatory Disease 2004
- Blood Levels of Long-Chain Omega–3 Fatty Acids and the Risk of Sudden Death (681) 2002
- Fish Consumption, Fish Oil, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Cardiovascular Disease (663) 2002
- Importance of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Disease (536) 2000
- The Effect of Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Coronary Atherosclerosis (530) 1999
- Fish Consumption and the 30-Year Risk of Fatal Myocardial Infarction (472) 1997
- Vitamin B Deficiency and Stroke Prevention: New Report Says Folic Acid Supplementation Can Reduce Risk of Stroke 2007
- Take Heart: Study Validates Folic Acid Decreases Risk of Heart Disease and Stroke, Reinforces Animi-3 Formula 2006
- Folate, Vitamin B6, and B12 Intakes In Relation to Risk of Stroke Among Men (571) 2004
- Folates and Cardiovascular Disease (688) 2002
- Moderately Elevated Plasma Homocysteine, Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Genotype, and Risk for Stroke, Vascular Dementia, and Alzheimer Disease in Northern Ireland (554) 2002
- Decreased Rate of Coronary Restenosis after Lowering of Plasma Homocysteine Levels (629) 2001
- Low Circulating Folate and Vitamin B-6 Concentrations (646) 1998
- Preventing Coronary Heart Disease (480) 1998
- Vitamin Supplementation Reduces Blood Homocysteine Levels (561) 1998
- Serum Folate and Risk of Fatal Coronary Heart Disease (428) 1996
1 “Increased Consumption of Omega-3 Fatty Acids May Lower the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, Dementia, and Inflammatory Disease” Conference, July 1, 2004. Supported by PBM educational grant.
*FDA “Qualified Health Claims” Omega-3 Fatty Acids & Coronary Heart Disease. Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. FDA evaluated the above claim and determined that, although there is scientific evidence supporting the claim, the evidence is not conclusive. Docket No. 9IN-0103.
** FDA “Qualified Health Claims” B vitamins & Vascular Disease. As part of a well-balanced diet that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol, Folic Acid, Vitamin B6 and Vitamin B12 may reduce the risk of vascular disease. FDA evaluated the above claim and found that, while it is known that diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol reduce the risk of heart disease and other vascular diseases, the evidence in support of the above claim is inconclusive. Docket No. 99P-3029.
1 Maradit-Kremers, H., et al. Increased Unrecognized Coronary Heart Disease and Sudden Deaths in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Arth & Rheum 2005;52(2):402-11.